Suicide Warning Signs
The following signs may mean someone is at risk for suicide. The risk of suicide is greater if a behavior is new or has increased and if it seems related to a painful event, loss, or change. If you or someone you know exhibits any of these signs, seek help as soon as possible by calling the Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
- Talking about wanting to die or to kill themselves.
- Looking for a way to kill themselves, such as searching online or buying a gun
- Talking about feeling hopeless or having no reason to live.
- Talking about feeling trapped or in unbearable pain.
- Talking about being a burden to others.
- Increasing the use of alcohol or drugs.
- Acting anxious or agitated; behaving recklessly.
- Sleeping too little or too much.
- Withdrawing or isolating themselves.
- Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge.
- Displaying extreme mood swings.
Suicide Risk Factors
Risk factors are often confused with warning signs of suicide, and frequently suicide prevention materials mix the two into lists of “what to watch out for.” It is important to note, however, that factors identified as increasing risk are not factors that cause or predict a suicide attempt. Risk factors are characteristics that make it more likely that an individual will consider, attempt, or die by suicide. Protective factors are characteristics that make it less likely that individuals will consider, attempt, or die by suicide.
Risk Factors for Suicide
- Mental disorders, particularly mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and certain personality disorders
- Alcohol and other substance use disorders
- Impulsive and/or aggressive tendencies
- History of trauma or abuse
- Major physical illnesses
- Previous suicide attempt
- Family history of suicide
- Job or financial loss
- Loss of relationship
- Easy access to lethal means
- Local clusters of suicide
- Lack of social support and sense of isolation
- Stigma associated with asking for help
- Lack of health care, especially mental health and substance abuse treatment
- Cultural and religious beliefs, such as the belief that suicide is a noble resolution of a personal dilemma
- Exposure to others who have died by suicide (in real life or via the media and Internet)
Protective Factors for Suicide
- Effective clinical care for mental, physical and substance use disorders
- Easy access to a variety of clinical interventions
- Restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide
- Strong connections to family and community support
- Support through ongoing medical and mental health care relationships
- Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution and handling problems in a non-violent way
- Cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation
(This was adapted from "Understanding Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide” and “Risk and protective factors for suicide" by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center.)
This is a list of commonly used terms in information about mental health and suicide prevention.
Best practices – Activities or programs that are in keeping with the best available evidence regarding what is effective.
Chat service – Crisis counseling provided via instant messaging.
Comprehensive suicide prevention plans – Plans that use a multi-faceted approach to addressing the problem. For example, including interventions targeting biopsychosocial, social and environmental factors.
Confidentiality – The principle in medical ethics that the information a patient or client reveals to a health care provider is private and has limits on how and when it can be disclosed to a third party.
Consumer – A person who is using or has used a health service.
Contagion – A phenomenon whereby susceptible persons are influenced towards suicidal behavior through knowledge of another person's suicidal acts.
Crisis center – A facility or call center where individuals going through personal crises can obtain help or advice, either in-person or by crisis hotline.
Crisis counseling – Brief counseling that is focused on minimizing stress, providing emotional support and improving an individual’s coping strategies in the here and now. Like psychotherapy, crisis counseling involves assessment, planning and treatment, but the scope of service is generally much more specific.
Crisis hotline – A phone number individuals can call to get immediate emergency crisis counseling by telephone.
Crisis intervention – See Crisis counseling
Gatekeepers – Those individuals in a community who have face-to-face contact with large numbers of community members as part of their usual routine; they may be trained to identify persons at risk of suicide and refer them to treatment or supporting services as appropriate.
Health – The complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Health and safety officials – Law enforcement officers, fire fighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and outreach workers in community health programs.
Imminent risk – A situation in which there is believed to be a close temporal connection between an individual’s current risk status and actions that could lead to his or her suicide.
Intentional – Injuries resulting from purposeful human action whether directed at oneself (self-directed) or others (assaultive), sometimes referred to as violent injuries.
Intervention – A strategy or approach that is intended to prevent an outcome or to alter the course of an existing condition (such as providing lithium for bipolar disorder or strengthening social support in a community).
Means – The instrument or object whereby a self-destructive act is carried out (i.e., firearm, poison, medication).
Means restriction – Techniques, policies, and procedures designed to reduce access or availability to means and methods of deliberate self-harm.
Methods – Actions or techniques which result in an individual inflicting self-harm (i.e., asphyxiation, overdose, jumping).
Mental disorder – A diagnosable illness characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination thereof) associated with distress that significantly interferes with an individual's cognitive, emotional or social abilities; often used interchangeably with mental illness.
Mental health – The capacity of individuals to interact with one another and the environment in ways that promote subjective well-being, optimal development and use of mental abilities (cognitive, affective and relational).
Mental health problem – Diminished cognitive, social or emotional abilities but not to the extent that the criteria for a mental disorder are met.
Mental health services – Health services that are specially designed for the care and treatment of people with mental health problems, including mental illness. Includes hospital and other 24-hour services, intensive community services, ambulatory or outpatient services, medical management, case management, intensive psychosocial rehabilitation services, and other intensive outreach approaches to the care of individuals with severe disorders.
Mental illness – See Mental disorder.
Postvention – A strategy or approach that is implemented after a crisis or traumatic event has occurred.
Prevention – A strategy or approach that reduces the likelihood of risk of onset, or delays the onset of adverse health problems or reduces the harm resulting from conditions or behaviors.
Prevention network – Coalitions of change-oriented organizations and individuals working together to promote suicide prevention. Prevention networks might include statewide coalitions, community task forces, regional alliances, or professional groups.
Protective factors – Factors that make it less likely that individuals will develop a disorder. Protective factors may encompass biological, psychological or social factors in the individual, family and environment.
Psychiatric disorder – See Mental disorder.
Psychiatry – The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychology – The science concerned with the individual behavior of humans, including mental and physiological processes related to behavior.
Public health - The science and art of promoting health, preventing disease, and prolonging life through the organized efforts of society.
Risk assessment – The process of quantifying the probability of an individual harming himself or others.
Risk factors – Those factors that make it more likely that individuals will develop a disorder; risk factors may encompass biological, psychological or social factors in the individual, family and environment.
Screening – Administration of an assessment tool to identify persons in need of more in-depth evaluation or treatment.
Screening tools – Instruments and techniques (questionnaires, check lists, self-assessment forms) used to evaluate individuals for increased risk of certain health problems.
Self-harm – The various methods by which individuals injure themselves, such as self-cutting, self-battering, taking overdoses or exhibiting deliberate recklessness.
Self-injury – See Self-harm.
Social services – Organized efforts to advance human welfare, such as home-delivered meal programs, support groups, and community recreation projects.
Social support – Assistance that may include companionship, emotional backing, cognitive guidance, material aid and special services.
Stakeholders – Entities, including organizations, groups and individuals, which are affected by and contribute to decisions, consultations and policies.
Stigma – An object, idea, or label associated with disgrace or reproach.
Substance abuse – A maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to repeated use. This includes maladaptive use of legal substances and illicit drugs.
Suicidal act (also referred to as suicide attempt) – A potentially self-injurious behavior with a nonfatal outcome, for which there is evidence that the person intended to kill himself or herself. A suicide attempt may or may not result in injuries.
Suicidal behavior – A spectrum of activities related to thoughts and behaviors that include suicidal thinking, suicide attempts, and completed suicide.
Suicidal ideation – Self-reported thoughts of engaging in suicide-related behavior.
Suicidality – A term that encompasses suicidal thoughts, ideation, plans, suicide attempts, and completed suicide.
Suicide – Death from injury, poisoning, or suffocation where there is evidence that a self-inflicted act led to the person's death.
Suicide attempt – See Suicidal act
Suicide attempt survivors – Individuals who have survived a prior suicide attempt.
Suicide survivors – Family members, significant others, or acquaintances who have experienced the loss of a loved one due to suicide. Sometimes this term is also used to mean suicide attempt survivors.
Suicide warning signs – Indications that an individual is at risk for suicide.
Adapted from the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for action. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 2001
Helpful Fact Sheets
Learn more about suicide prevention with information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the Suicide Prevention Resource Center.
Suicide: Facts at a Glance (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Understanding Suicide: Fact Sheet (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Suicide Prevention Dialogue with Consumers and Survivors: From Pain to Promise (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)
Suicide Prevention 101: Customized Information Series (Suicide Prevention Resource Center)
Please visit these suicide prevention and peer support organizations for more resources and information.
Suicide Prevention Organizations
Mental Health Support Organizations